Following Herod’s death, his family fought over control of the kingdom, with Archelaus ruling over the majority of the kingdom, shortly before being deposed. This was the end of the Jewish kings, as a new Roman rulers incorporated Judaea, now a small province, into Syria.
It is within such a context that Jesus Christ emerged. The Zealots and Sicarii emerged at this time, with the intent on resisting romanization and Hellenization, leading to their oppression by the Romans, and eventually, to their suicide at Masada, which they saw preferable to being captured alive by the Romans. This culminated in the destruction of the Jewish Temple; one of the most tragic moments in Jewish history.
Emperor Hadrian, in 130 A.D., attempted to Hellenize the Jews once again, but the Jews revolted. A few years later, the Bar Kochba Revolt (132-135 A.D.) took place, leading to the death of approximately 2/3rds of Judaea’s Jewish population. This began the Jewish diaspora and, to add insult to injury, the Romans renamed Judaea to Palaestina, from which we get the modern term “Palestine.”
For the next several hundred years, the Jews codified their religion in the Talmud, whereas the Christians codified theirs in the New Testament. Rome had been undergoing a progressive decay throughout this period, with The Emperor Constantine intervening in 313-337. He moved the capital of Rome from its location near the Near East to Byzantium. This capital would be renamed Constantinople. Christianity was legalized in the Edict of Milan.
It ought to be clear at this point, that any sort of ancient, millenia-old blood-feud between thet seed of Isaac vs. the seed of Ishmael is utter nonsense. The myth has its roots neither in the Bible nor in any reliable historical record, and stems from complete ignorance of history.
The “Jews,” insofar as they are descendants of the ancient Israelites, and therefore, Canaanites, are “Palestinians.” Of course, the same is true of Moabites, Edomites, Canaanites, Phoenicians, those under the rule of Greeks, Byzantines, Romans, Arabs, and every sort of intermarriage and admixture between these groups.
Modern “Palestinian” culture, however, is the result of a 7th-century influx of Arab tribes who had converted to Islam, as well as the progeny of their intermarriage with those who had lived there. Of course, modern “Palestinians” are as truly the descendants of the original Canaanites as the Israelites with whom they are currently at odds, and if antiquity of habitation is to be the determinant of who possesses the rights to the land, a straightforward stalemate is the result.
Harms, Gregory; Ferry, Todd M. (2012-06-14). The Palestine-Israel Conflict: A Basic Introduction (Kindle Location 176). Pluto Press. Kindle Edition.