A better covenant with better promises implies the inadequacy of the previous covenant. Verse 7 reads, For if that first covenant had been faultless, there would have been no occasion to look for a second. Chapter 7 teaches that the offerings that were offered by the priests under the old covenant were weak and useless because they could not bring a person near God. The old covenant was no more than a brief setup that would have to give way to something better.
This quote is taken from Jeremiah 31:31-34. This is the only passage in the OT that specifically speaks of a new covenant.
The covenant that God made with the Israelites when He brought them out of the land of Egypt failed because the Israelites failed. Verse 9 gives the reason for their failure–they did not continue in my covenant, so I showed no concern for them, declared the Lord.
The author continues and describes the new covenant. In this covenant God said:
1. I will put my laws into their minds
2. I will write my law on their hearts
3. I will be their God
4. They shall be my people
5. They shall know me
6. I will be merciful toward their iniquities
7. I will remember their sins no more
This covenant or law would be a law of assurance and obedience and offered the people a close relationship with God. By contrast, the Old Law was written on tablets but this new law would be written on the human heart.
The New Covenant would not remember the sins of the people whereas the Old Law could never completely atone for sins.
What does it mean to have God’s law written on the heart? We must obey. The heart is the place of the will. In Matthew 15 Jesus describes what defiles a person. In verse 10 Jesus says, Hear and understand: it is not what goes into the mouth that defiles a person, but what comes out of the mouth; this defiles a person. He said this because the Pharisees and scribes came to Him and asked Him why His disciples break the tradition of the elders. Apparently the disciples did not wash their hands before they ate. When I was deployed, I had a very dirty job up there on the flight deck. Sometimes I just had time to run down and grab and sandwich, scarf it down and run back up to the flight deck before the jets landed. I did not have time to wash my hands a lot of times. Because a person does not wash his hands doe snot mean he did not bless his food or did not honor God. Because a person did not wash his hands does not mean he does not love the Lord and obey His commandments. The Pharisees were great at making something out of nothing. They made such a big deal out of tradition. Jesus also said to His disciples, Are you also still without understanding? Do you not see that whatever goes into the mouth passes into the stomach and is expelled? But what comes out of the mouth proceeds from the heart, and this defiles a person. For out of the heart come evil thoughts, murder, adultery, sexual immorality, theft, false witness, slander. These are what defile a person… If God’s law is in the heart, there is the will to obey it.
There are other passages in Scripture that alludes to this thought:
Ezekiel 11:19, 20
There are more than 10 million modern Jews whether Reform, Orthodox or Conservative. They have no temple, no tabernacle, no Levitical priesthood, no sacrifices since they reject Christ and Christianity and cling to Moses. Their synagogue services are void. This is what the Jewish Christians in the time Hebrews was written would soon face after forsaking God. They could be saved by the teachings of Paul. But the Jews today obviously do not want to be saved because they reject God by rejecting his Son.
There will never be a revival of Judaism with God’s approval and a reinstatement of the Mosaic Dispensation. God will never sanction with approval a future temple on Mount Moriah.